ѭҤҨҧ鹵Сá˹Ҩҧ㹻: ֧ҵͧǹ

ѡԹ ѵá ظ

1. ¡ѺѲҡ÷ѧŧͧҡѧҨҧ٧ѧҨҧ

ɰԨẺعѲТµѧѧ÷ʹѭ ԴաäաѺҹһѪŷ 4 觼դͧçҹѺҧӹǹҡ 袳йջЪҡä͹ҧФѧкࡳç ҹѰ¡к ЪҪҾçҹѺҧѺçҹ ʶҹСͺõҧ ͵Ǣ ͧաùçҹҵԨҡȨչӹǹҡ çҹչ֧çҹѺҧá㹻ա ¡ԡкࡳçҹ 褹ǹ˭ѧ㨡ѺСԵ躹 ѧԴ Թ͡Ӥѭͧ ѹҡçҹǹ˭ѺԵ躹׹աǹҹ Ѻȵ· ¤çҹҵԨҡȨչ֧ѧçҹǹ˭ ҴçҹաҹѺȵ蹡ѹ âҴŹçҹ¡繻ȷդҨҧçҹ͹ҧ ٧ººѺ Ҥ [1]

çҹ͹͡ҡҧҹࢵصˡ ͧҧԧѧҡѧѰâͧɴ Ѫ㹻 1958 աûѺ¹ǹº·ҧɰԨͧ¨ҡ ɰԨҵԹ [2] Ѱպҷá᫧дԹԨҧɰԨµͧ ɰԨẺع ѹ鹡Ҥصˡ ӪТͧѰԡиҤš·ʹҤɵá աèѴἹѲɰԨ觪ҵ ͡ҵáҧҧáԨ͡ ҧ觷¡ ҡ㹡ŧع ෧ҳ͹˭ҧçҧ鹰ҹѺþѲҤ صˡ ͡ŧع ҧԤصˡ ԷԾҧҡѡŧع ¡鹡繵 ŧعͧҤ͡µԺⵢҧǡⴴ ѷҵԾҡѹŧعҧçҹ㹻 з·ع ѰѺº¤ǺШӡѴԷԢͧçҹ աûС¡ԡ¤ͧçҹѺáͧ«觻С ֧ͧա͹˹ (1956) СҾçҹ觼Դ㹻 Է㹡èҵͧ١Դ͹ ùѴشҹ觷зҧ索Ҵ йͨشӤѭӾһѧҨҧ㹷 ش

ἹѲɰԨͧҡºصˡ ᷹ùҡ͹㹪ǧá ѹطþѲ鹡͡ ɰԨʶҾ ͧ觾ԧ͡Сŧعҡҧѵǹ٧ҡʹ Ҷ֧ɷ 1980 繰ҹŧعصˡͧ͡ѡŧعҡҧҵ 㹪ǧǡѹաþѲصˡ½觷ŵѹ͡ (Eastern Seaboard) աáШصˡҤ աá˹صˡ ѹСͺâҴҧТҴ SMEs աҧ͢صˡ (Industrial Cluster)

ͻ»ʺѺѭԡĵɰԨ˭㹻 1997 ͧѺêͨҡʶҺѹԹҧ 觶١ѹͧԹº¡ûѺçҧɰԨصˡ ѡҤº㹡觢ѹ 觹ôԹºɰԨصˡ͡͡ (Export-oriented Industry) çҹҡ ͧ͡Ѵǹ٧֧ 70% ͧGDP ٻẺèҧҹ¹Ẻ״ҡ ҹӹǹҡ١ѡ͡ҤɰԨ͡кҡ ҹҴ蹤㹡÷ӧҹ ӹҨõͧͧçҹ觵觵ҡ觢 ȷҧá˹ҨҧǷҧصˡѰͧҡ ӹ֧֧˵ؼŷҧɰԨͧҹ

. . Է ԭ 觤ɰʵ Է§ʶҹҾͧçҹ㹻к ɰԨҧʹ ¡çҹҤҶ١Ẻ 3 L Ҩҧçҹ١ Low Wage ԵҾçҹ Low Productivity Ъ÷ӧҹǹҹ Long Working Hour çҹդسҾԵ çҹǹ˭§͵͡ôçվ ͧӧҹǧ§͡Ѻ” [3]

 

2. Ҩҧ鹵: ҵáͻͧͧçҹ͡㹡âٴմçҹ?

ա¤Ҩҧ鹵ӵСȤлѵԩѺ 103 㹻 1972 ˹зǧҴ (й繡зǧӡѺͧçҹ) ͡Сȡзǧ ͧá˹ѵҤҨҧ鹵 ¡˹աèѴ駤СäҨҧ 繤СҤշ˹ҷԨóҡ˹ѵҤҨҧ鹵Ӣ ѧѺ СêشСͺ¼᷹¹¨ҧ ᷹١ҧ˹ҷѰҨҡ觵駢ͧѰҡ зǧҴ СäҨҧشá Ѻ觵ѹ 14 Ҿѹ 1973 աûСѵҤҨҧ鹵ӺѧѺ繤áѹ 16 ¹ 1973 áդҨҧ鹵㹻 ͧҤҨҧ鹵㹢йѧ ... ѵҤҨҧçҹҪԡ㹤ͺա 2 §͡çԵ ҧѡդѧ 㹡ûСҨҧ鹵㹻 1975 աͧնѴѰ¹ŧͧ Ҩҧ鹵Ӕ ¶֧ ...ѵҤҨҧ繷١ҧ (Ҫԡ㹤ͺ) öçվ... йѺҡ繵ҡá˹Ҩҧ鹵ӡִ͹ࡳ㹡á˹

ѵäҨҧ鹵ӤáաûС㹻¤ѵҤ ҧѹ 12 ҷ ѧѺѹ 17 ¹ 1973 Ҩҧ鹵áռźѧѺ੾ 4 ѧѴ ا෾ҹ طûҡ лҹ 繾鹷صˡӤѭ㹢й 觡çҹҳ١ҧ Ѻªҡá˹ѵҤҨҧ鹵Ӥáҳ 100,000 ҡ֡Ңͧ 쾧ѹ çҹӤѭͧ¢й鹾 Ҩҧ鹵ӷ˹㹤áѧӡҤ·㹡äͧ վͧçҹҧҡ ӹѡҹʶԵ觪ҵʹ§ҹǨɰԨѧ㹻 1973 Ҽçҹӡѹ 25 ҷ֧дçվ [4]

Ҩҧ鹵㹻鹺ѧѺѵ ѧѺ੾㹡ا෾ л 4 ѧѴҹ ҵѹ 14 Զع¹ 1974 鹷ѧѺ 6 ѧѴ ( طҤйû) Т¡úѧѺú駻ȵѹ 1 Ҥ 1974 繵

㹪ǧҧ 1974 - 1983 ѵҤҨҧ鹵ӷ˹лСռźѧѺ ѹ 1 Ҥ ͧл (ͺէҳѰ) ѧҡ¹һСռźѧѺѵҤҨҧ鹵 ءѹ 1 Ҥ ѹ 1 ¹ (ѹͧ) СûѺҨҧ鹵кѴਹ㹡 »ԨлѺ 1 պҧշѺҡ 1 ͺҧѺ¡ 駹ѺʶҹóҧɰԨ º·ҧͧӹҨõͧͧǹçҹ㹪ǧҹ

ѧԡĵɰԨԹ˭㹻㹻 1997 ռŷʶҹСͺèӹǹҡͧԴԨŧ աԡҧѡҹӹǹҡ ѰµͧѺêͷҧҹԹҡͧعԹҧ ֧ա÷˹ѧ駤ӹ (Letter of Intent) ʹἹ鹿СûѺçҧҧɰԨ蹡ѺͧعԹ ҧ (IMF) ŧѹ 14 ԧҤ 1997 բ˹觢ͧ˹ѧкǡѺº¤Ҩҧ " ŴšзҤѹҨԴ鹨ҡ͹ŧͧԹҷ ҧèǴ㹡ûѺԹ͹ҤѰ աûѺԹѵԹ;鹰ҹҹ еͧûѺԹ͹ ФҨҧҤ͡㹷ȷҧʹͧѹ" ͡ҡ ͺº´ҹҴçҹʴԡѧѰµŧѺҤþѲ (ADB) ѧ͹䢷աҨҧ鹵㹻 1998 ö㹡觢ѹͧҴçҹ ա秤Ҩҧ鹵ǹҹ֧ 3 (Ҥ 1998 - 31 ѹҤ 2000) ͤǺ鹷عçҹѺʶҹСͺõҧ [5]

ʶҹóԡĵɰԨաԡҧçҹӹǹТǹ Ҿçҹ͹ ٭ӹҨͧ 駤Ҩҧ鹵ФҨҧçҹҾ١ ͡ҡѰžФǺҨҧµ㨽¼Сͺ ѧ͡ʷӡ¹ŧкѡࡳá˹Ҩҧ鹵 ¢ͧ¹ŧ駹ͷҧ鹷ͧդ ҧԴͧСͺǻªҡçҹҤҶ١ 觷ѰŷӤѹԸաáШӹҨá˹ѵҤҨҧ鹵 дѺѧѴ 繡á˹ҡͧҤдѺҵ Ѱçҹ㹵ҧѧѴǹ˭աǡѹ ֧ӹҨͧ ФҴҤҨҧ鹵¨ѧѴҾçҹաûѺ աûѺǹ ѰԹͧ͡繻СȢͧзǧçҹ͹㹻 1997 Ѱž͡Ե չ ҹ侺Ѱ §ѴҹҡҾçҹѺþԨó еաõҾҪѭѵԤͧçҹѺ㹻 1998 ֧ѡá˹Ҩҧ鹵Ẻè㹡´ѧ á˹Ҩҧ鹵ẺѵҤҨҧǹ˭ ͡ 3 ѵҤ 1. ا෾, 5 ѧѴű 2. ѧѴź § Ҫ ѧ йͧ к С 3 63 ѧѴ кԴѵҤҨҧ鹵ӷᵡҧѹѵ Ѩغѹն֧ 32 ѵ

 

3. ҷӤѡкǹá˹Ҩҧ鹵

ѡӤѭǡѺá˹Ҩҧ鹵ӵ¤ͧçҹ 1998 ѧͧҨ֧ѨغѹӤѭѧ [6]

1. ¢ͧ "Ҩҧ"
ա¹ͧ "Ҩҧ" ҡѡ Ҩҧ Ҩ¶֧ԹԹ觢ͧ ¹¨ҧ١ҧŧѹǧ˹ ѡ Ҩҧ¶֧ Թ ¨ҧ١ҧŧѹҨШ繤ҵͺ᷹㹡÷ӧҹѭҨҧ ·¹仹ռŷ¨ҧҨ¤Ҩҧ鹵Թ ӡҷ衮¡˹ ѡ繤ʴԡúҧҧѴ١ҧ ѡ Ẻ· 繵

2. ͺࢵúѧѺ
Ҩҧ鹵ӵ¤ͧ١ҧ͡ ¡ѧѺѺ١ҧͧҪǹҧ ҪǹҤ Ҫǹͧ ѰˡԨҴçҹѰˡԨѹ ١ҧӧҹɵá ҹл١ ҹ ҹ ҹ§ѵ ١ҧѺҹ价ӷҹ ١ҧӧҹǡѺҹҹ ѹաûСͺáԨ ١ҧӧҹѹǧҡ㹷ҧɰԨ

3. ͧҨҧ鹵
˹ѵäҨҧ鹵 2 ѵҤҨҧ鹵Ӿ鹰ҹ ѵҤҨҧ鹵 ѵҤҨҧ鹵Ӿ鹰ҹ ѵҤҨҧ觤СäҨҧҧ繼˹ 繾鹰ҹ㹡á˹ѵҤҨҧ鹵Ӣͧ͹ءäҨҧ ӻШӨѧѴ 觨еӡѵҤҨҧ鹵Ӿ鹰ҹ ʹѰջСҪԨҹມ ǹѵҤҨҧ鹵ӤѵҤҨҧ觤СäҨҧҧ˹ ͤ͹ءäҨҧѧѴ˹¤繪ͺͧСä ҧҧ ó ʹѰջСҪԨҹມ

4. ࡳ㹡þԨóҡ˹Ҩҧ鹵㹻
ԨóҨҡͧСͺ 3 Сä

  1. ͧСͺҹ㹡äͧվͧ١ҧ 5 ѡࡳ
    1. 稨ԧǡѺѵҤҨҧ١ҧѺ
    2. ѪդҤͧվ
    3. ѵԹ
    4. ҤҢͧԹ
    5. ҵðҹäͧվ
  2. ͧСͺҹö㹡è¢ͧ¨ҧ 3 ѡࡳ
    1. 鹷عüԵ
    2. öͧáԨ
    3. ԵҾçҹ
  3. ͧСͺҹɰԨѧ 2 ѡࡳ
    1. Եѳͧ
    2. ҾɰԨѧ

5. çҧͧСá˹Ҩҧ鹵
¡˹դСäҨҧ 2 СäҨҧҧФ͹ءѵҤҨҧ鹵ӻШӨѧѴ

1) СäҨҧҧ Сͺ¼᷹зǧçҹ ᷹ӹѡҹСþѲҡɰԨѧ觪ҵ ᷹зǧҳԪ ᷹зǧäѧ ᷹зǧصˡ 繡 С蹫Ѱ觵駨ҡçسزͧ ᷹¹¨ҧм᷹١ҧ紤 ˹ӹѡҹСäҨҧͧзǧçҹŢҹء

ѡࡳǡѺҢ᷹ͧ١ҧн¹¨ҧ㹤С Ҩҧ Ң᷹ͧ١ҧн¹¨ҧѡࡳԸ ͹ ҧҨҡ觵µçͧѰ ҧҨҡ͡¼᷹ҾçҹҤ¨ҧǨ֧ʹ ѰջС觵 ѺҢ᷹ͧ١ҧн¹¨ҧ㹤СäҨҧ ˹ͧ١ҧ [7] 繼ʹªͼѤѺ͡繼᷹١ҧ ͧù¨ҧʹªͼѤѺ͡繼᷹ ¹¨ҧ ҡҾҤ¨ҧ繼͡§͡ ѡ 1 ͧ 1 §ҡѹ ҨҪԡҡµҧѹ§
˹餳СäҨҧӹҨ˹ҷѧ仹

  1. ʹͤ繵ͤѰǡѺº¤Ҩҧ
  2. ʹͤ繵ͤѰйҤ͡ǡѺá˹ҨҧСûѺҨҧШӻ
  3. ˹ѵҤҨҧ鹵Ӿ鹰ҹ
  4. ˹ѵҤҨҧ鹵ӷ١ҧѺҾɰԨѧ
  5. ʹͤ繵ͤѰ;ѲкҨҧ
  6. йӴҹԪҡǷҧûҹ ª˹§ҹҧ Ҥ͡
  7. §ҹʹѰҧ»ФǡѺФҨҧͧҨҧʹ ҵá÷èԹ
  8. Ժѵԡ㴵ҪѭѵԹ͡ 蹺ѭѵӹҨ˹ҷͧСäҨҧ͵褳Ѱ Ѱͺ 㹡ʹͤ繵ͤѰ СäҨҧ բѧࡵǡѺþѲкͧȴ¡

2) ͹ءѵҤҨҧ鹵ӨѧѴ ըӹǹԹ 15 Сͺ¼ҪèѧѴ繻иҹ ҳԪѧѴ صˡѧѴ çҹʴԡѧѧѴ м᷹Ҥ觻»ШҤ ͼ᷹ٹѲҤ ӹѡҹСþѲҡɰԨѧ觪ҵ ͼ᷹ǹҪ蹵ѧѴ ᷹١ҧн¹¨ҧ ҡѺӹǹ᷹ҤѰ

Ըա͹ءü᷹¹¨ҧм᷹١ҧ ӹѡҹçҹѧѴͧù¨ҧ ͧ١ҧͧù¨ҧ ͧ١ҧ㹨ѧѴҺ óͧ١ҧ ͧù¨ҧ㹨ѧѴ ӹѡҹçҹѧѴС¨ҧ١ҧ Һǡѹ ʹͪͼ᷹ѤѺäѴ͡ʶҹ 褳СҤ͹ءѵҤҨҧ鹵ӡ˹

6. þԨóҡ˹ѵҤҨҧ鹵ӨѧѴ

  1. 餳͹ءѵҤҨҧ鹵ӨѧѴ ֡оԨóҢ稨ԧǡѺѵҤҨҧ١ҧ㹨ѧѴѺ СͺѺ稨ԧ 㹨ѧѴ ѪդҤͧվ ѵԹ ҵðҹäͧվ 鹷عüԵ ҤҢͧԹ öͧáԨ ԵҾçҹ Եѳ ҾɰԨѧ
  2. ѵҤҨҧ鹵ӢͧѧѴ ͧӡѵҤҨҧ鹵Ӿ鹰ҹ褳СäҨҧҧ˹
  3. ͹Ԩóҡ˹ѵҤҨҧ鹵ӢͧѧѴ ͹ءѵҤҨҧ鹵ӨѧѴǨ ǡѺҨҧ ҵðҹäͧվ ·繢ͧ١ҧ Т稨ԧҧѧɰԨ㹨ѧѴ ͹һСͺþԨóҡ˹ѵҤҨҧ鹵ӢͧѧѴ
  4. ;Ԩóҡ˹ѵҤҨҧ鹵ӢͧѧѴ 餳͹ءѵҤҨҧ鹵ӨѧѴʹͼšþԨóҾ ´ 餳СäҨҧҧԨó繪ͺ йʹѰҡáзǧçҹ ;ԨóŧСѧѺ

 

4. ѭҢͧá˹Ҩҧ鹵㹻

ҹҴ¹ºѰͧѡҤº㹡觢ѹ¡ Ǻ鹷عҹҨҧçҹҧͧ СͺѺ͹͡Ҿͧǹçҹ㹻·ѵҡ ԺⵢͧҨҧ㹻ѵҷҡ ҡͧӹѡҹСäҨҧ зǧçҹººûѺѵҤҨҧ鹵ӷ ȡѺ鹢ͧѵԹͷ駻 2002 - 2011 ѵԹͷ駻 10 աûѺҡҡ鹢ͧѵҤҨҧ鹵· 1.9 Ǥ ѵԹͷ駻 ա 27.6 㹢зѵҤҨҧ鹵ӷ駻 աûѺ§ 25.7 蹤ѵԹͷ駻 աûѺҡҡѵҤҨҧ鹵ӷ駻 ͻ 0.19 Ǥ ѵԹաµͻ 2.76 㹢зѵҤҨҧ鹵աûѺµͻ 2.57 зѵҡԭԺ١ҾԨó㹡á˹Ҩҧ鹵 ͺ 10 շҹ ҾСͺ 1

ҧ 1 ººѵҤҨҧ鹵ӡѺѵԹͷ駻ѵҡ ¹ŧͧ GDP 10 ͹ѧ ( 2002 - 2011)
.. ѵҤҨҧ鹵
·駻
(ҷ)
ѵҡ¹ŧ
ͧѵҤҨҧ鹵
()
ѵ
Թ
()
ѵ
Եѳ
ҤһѨغѹ
2002 137.0 0.2 0.7 6.2
2003 138.3 0.9 1.8 8.6
2004 139.7 1.0 2.7 9.7
2005 148.1 6.0 4.5 9.3
2006 149.4 0.9 4.7 10.6
2007 154.0 3.1 2.3 8.7
2008 162.1 5.3 5.5 6.5
2009 162.1 0.0 -0.9 -0.4
2010 165.3 2.0 3.3 11.8
2011 (1..) 175.8 6.4 3.0 7.0
(2002 - 2011) 25.7 27.6 78
µͻ 2.57 2.76 7.8

 

Ҿ 1 ʴººѵҤҨҧ鹵 ѵԹ GDP

֧ҷǹ кҨҧ

: ӹѡҹСäҨҧ ӹѡɰԨçҹ ӹѡҹѴзǧçҹ

شСѵҤҨҧ鹵ӻШӻ 2011 ѧѺѹ 1 Ҥҹ ûѺ鹤ҨҧشѺѵҷ٧ҡºѺ Ѻ駡͹˹ ˵ؼŢͧѭҳҡѰŷͧûѺҨҧ鹵٧ ͡еɰԨӹҨ㹻 ˵ؼաСä͡ ûѺ鹤ҨҧзѰѺʹѺʹعҡçҹͫ觨 ѺªµçҡûѺҨҧ鹵Ф

ҧ 2 ѵҤҨҧ鹵ӻШӻ 2011
ѵҷ 1 ѧѴ Ҩҧ (ҷ)
1 221
2 ا෾ҹ û ҹ طûҡ طҤ 215
3 ź 196
4 ԧ к 193
5 йظ 190
6 ͧ 189
7 ѧ 186
8 йͧ 185
9 к 184
10 Ҫ лҨչ 183
11 ž 182
12 ҭ 181
13 § Ҫ 180
14 ѹ ྪú 179
15 ʧ ԧ 176
16 ѧ 175
17 ոҪ ҧͧ 174
18 ѷا ʵ 173
19 ШǺբѹ طʧ ɮҹ 172
20 Ҹ شøҹ غҪҹ 171
21 ù¡ лѵҹ 170
22 Ҵ Ӿٹ ˹ͧ 169
23 ᾧྪ ط¸ҹ 168
24 Թ ͹ ¹ҷ ؾó 167
25 § ä ྪúó ʸ ʡŹ 166
26 ء ӻҧ ⢷ ˹ͧ 165
27 þ 164
28 ԨԵ ɳš ä ͧ͹ ӹҨԭ صôԵ 163
29 ҡ Թ 162
30 ҹ 161
31 160
32 159

: СȤСäҨҧ ͧ ѵҤҨҧ鹵 (Ѻ 5)

ûѺѵҤҨҧ鹵 2011 ѹ 1 Ҥ 2011 繡ûѺ ·ǻѹ 10.5 ҷ ҡѹ 165.3 ҷ ѹ 175.8 ҷ ͤԴ 6.4 աäӹdzҡӹѡҹҨҧ зǧçҹҡûѺҨҧ鹵Ӥ駹ռŷçҹӹǹ ҳ 4,281,056 (Сѹ/çҹҵ 駷Ѻü͹ѹź§÷ӧҹ) ѺªҡûѺҨҧ㹤駹ԴԹ 47.1 ҹҷѹ 1,224.5 ҹҷ͹ 14,694 ҹҷͻ Ш觼ͧ͹ 0.422 ҡ ҳ 20,903 ҷ/͹ 20,991.21 ҷ/͹ 88.21 ҷ/͹

кá˹ѵҤҨҧ ẺШӹҨ价褳͹ءäҨҧ鹵ӻШӨѧѴ ԴҨҧ鹵ѵ ѨغѹѵҤҨҧ鹵ӷᵡҧѹҡ֧ 32 ѵ 㹤繨ԧ Ҥͧվ·о鹷դᵡҧѹҡѡ ѧѴҾçҹյ᷹ҹդö ǹ˹ҨҧҧջԷҾ Шҡʺó繨ԧ¾鹷ҾաûѺ鹤 ҧ鹵աûѺѵҷҡ ᷹çҹդö价ӧҹ֧дѺ õѴԹ㨨֧仵Ѻ᷹¹¨ҧѰūѡ㹷 ҧǡѹ ͹ءäҨҧШӨѧѴԨóѧͧ餳 äҨҧҧ繤Ѵա ͹ءäҨҧШӨѧѴ١ԨóҾçҹ繡 ШӹҨ ӹҨѴԹ㨡˹Ҩҧ鹵ԧ ͧʹ͢͹ءäҨҧ鹵ӻШӨѧѴ 褳СäҨҧҧѴԹ ѧ㹡äѴ͹ءäҨҧШӨѧѴѧҴʪѴਹ Ҽ᷹١ҧʴҡ §Ѻ¨ҧе᷹ͧѰ ͡Ѻ觵Ѻ͹ءա ˹ӫ͹ءäҨҧռҪèѧѴշ駤 سزӹҨҡ Դúҡȡû֡ͷҤѹ

ѡࡳ㹡á˹ѵҤҨҧ鹵ӷѴਹ 㹤繨ԧ á˹Ҩҧ仵º·ҧͧͧѰӹҨõͧͧ çҹ

çҹ ੾ҧ͹ءäҨҧ鹵ӻШӨѧѴդö Ҷ֧ž鹰ҹࡳ㹡á˹Ҩҧҧúǹ § ºѺҧѰн¹¨ҧդ ҧѧѴվ鹷Դѹ ѺѵҤҨҧ鹵ӵҧѹ 㹢зҤͧվҧѹ ѭաС˹觤ͤᵡ¡͡Ҿ㹡͹¡ͧ ͧҨҧ鹵Ӣͧǹçҹ ¤駷ͧʹ͵ŢѰŻѺ͹ѹ վѧ㹡õͧѺѰ

Шҡ÷çҹӹҨͧѺ¨ҧҡѡ ʶҹСͺǹ˭աèҵͧͻѺҨҧ Ҿèҧʴԡ Ҩҧ鹵 ѵҤҨҧ٧ ࡳûѺҨҧШӻѺçҹдѺҧͧʶҹСͺèӹǹ ҡ ҡǨͧзǧçҹçҹѺҨҧдѺ ѺѵҤҨҧ鹵 2 ҹ աӹǹҡ٧ѵҤҨҧ鹵ӷѰ˹§硹

Ѩغѹҹ¨ҧҧǹѹ仨ҧçҹҵصˡ ҴŹçҹ ҹ¹ ǹö¹ ͧ俿觷 աԡҧçҹͧҡçҹҵӹҨõͧ ӡçҹҡ ӹҨõͧͧçҹŴŧ ༪ԭ˹ФѴҧçҹ¡Ѻçҹҵ㹺ҧ 鹷

 

5. Ҩҧ繸ҡ˧Ңͧѧ

ѧЪҸԻ һЪҸԻ¨դ¨ԧ ࢵǧͧѹ͡ѧŷҧɰԨ 蹤͡ҧЪҸԻ·ҧɰԨ ¡ Industrial Democracy ЪҸԻ·ҧɰԨкع عçҹǹҧѧѹ (Social Partnership) ռŻªᵡҧѴ駡ѹ (عͧá٧ش зçҹͧäҵͺ᷹ ʴԡҾèҧҡŧçͧǡ) ҧµҧͧ觾ԧ«觡ѹСѹ й鹨繷еͧա觻ѹǹ觨ҡ÷ӧҹѹͧҧ ˵ ·仨¡ҹ͹觻ѹ繸 õѴԹѹ (Codetermination) ǹҷҧѧ (Social Dialogue) û֡ ѺաҶ֧ŷ繵͡õѴԹ㹡觻ѹ ªҡ÷ӧҹѹ Сèҵͧ (Collective Bargaining) ҧҾçҹѺ¨ҧͧù¨ҧ ҹдԹѧ鹵ͧѺ͹Է㹡 СèҵͧԷª鹾鹰ҹͧþԴ 觨йǡѹͧçҹй¨ҧ Ҩоһȷա觻ѹѹҧ繸 зԴҤҧɰԨժͧҧҧ¹鹨 ȷաѺԷ㹡ǡѹͧҹ դҹҪԡҾçҹѵҷ٧ҡ »û੾ҧ㹡᡹Թ ഹ 81% ԹŹ 76 % ഹ 74% 56% 54% 37% зդҹҪԡҾçҹ§ 1.3% 532,468 ҡէҹӷ 38 ҹ [8]

˵طҾçҹ㹻ҪԡԷ㹡 èҵͧѧѺѺ㹻 繻Ҫԡͧçҹҧȷ§ ͧšѧѵҺѹ͹ѭͧçҹҧȩѺ 8798ҴԷ㹡èҵͧ 觷šҶԷª鹾鹰ҹ ѵҺѹѧǷҧԺѵԷѴѺѡ âͧ͹ѭ 觷餹ҹ㹻֧ԷԴѧ СͺѺ÷ѲҧͧẺػ ѺѡҤѧԷԾ٧ҡѧ кçҹѹѲԴԴͺçҹѹẺ Ѻ ͧҹ¨ҧͽ·ع繼ػӹҨ˹ͽçҹ Ѻػ ͺͪԴҨҵͧ١ʸҡ¹¨ҧ лբ͵ŧ仨¹Ѻзǧçҹ§ 200 400 Ѻ ҡʶҹСͺͺʹ觷кСѹѧ ¤ ʶҹСͺ㹻 ǹ˭ӹҨѴԹ㹡觻ѹŻСͺҧعѺçҹѺ ·ع

й鹨֧ͧš㨷ŨҡӹѡҹСþѲҡ ɰԨѧ觪ҵ㹻 2007 ҡЪҡ 20 ٧شǹ ֧ 54.9 㹢зЪҡ 20 شǹ§ 4.4 ҹ 繡ػԹ仨ҡ繨ԧѡ ҡСҵ˵觤 ѧԧҨҡкá˹Ҩҧ繸ѧ ǹ˭繼çҹӹҨõͧҧ§ͷ 觻ѹ㹡кǹ÷ӧҹкعԴ繸 Ҩҧ鹵ӷҨͧͪͽçҹӹҨͧ Ѻäͧҵͺ᷹繸 кá˹Ҩҧ鹵Ӣͧ¡ö˹ҷҧ ԷҾ աࡳС䡷ӧҹѴਹ§ Ѻ١Դ͹ͧǷҧþѲصˡ ͡鹡觢ѹµ鹷عçҹ

 

6. ʹ͡ûٻкҨҧ¢ǹçҹ

ͧçҹ㹻ǡѹѴ繤зӧҹٻк ҧçҹ㹻»Сͺ¼᷹ͧçҹҡҡǹ ѡԪҡ ᷹ͧþѲ͡ҹçҹѹ¡ͧաûٻк ˹Ҩҧ㹻 ¡䢡¤ͧçҹǹǡѺҨҧբʹ ѹѧ

  1. ʹ¹ͧҤҨҧ鹵 ¶֧ҨҧѺ١ҧáҷӧҹ 1 á öͧվ§ѺͧФͺաͧ
  2. ʹ¡ԡ͹ءäҨҧ鹵ӻШӨѧѴ
  3. ʹաûѺ鹤Ҩҧ鹵 % ѵҡѹǻ ͵صˡ繻Шӷء
  4. ʹѰ͡ ˹ʶҹСͺõͧѺҨҧ繻Шӷء ʶҹСͺ÷աèҧҹӹǹҡèеͧաèѴçҧԹ ͹ԴѴਹ㹡ҧἹǡѺ¨ͧ ¨ҧн١ҧ͹Ҥ
  5. ¡ͧ¡ԡèҧҹ¤Ҩҧѹ ª¼ŧҹ
  6. ʹ黯ٻк͡駼᷹¹¨ҧ١ҧ з͹繵᷹ͧҹ з͹ԧͧ繵᷹ ͧ÷ҪԡҡҤèԷ§ҡͧ÷Ҫԡ ͻͧѹաèѴҾ 繰ҹ§㹡͡
  7. ʹաõŧѹѴਹ Ţèҡ˹? 繵ǪҴ õͧ鹤Ҩҧ鹵? ѪҤҼͧ ŢѵҡâµǢͧЪҪҵ ѵԹͧ͢зǧҳԪ ҴѪҤҼ 3% Ҩҧ鹵ӵͧաûС 3% ͧѵ ͧҾԨóҵͧѹ
  8. ʹѺاçҧáá˹Ҩҧ鹵 ¡˹դСûШ ֡ҾԨóҢŻСͺá˹Ҩҧ鹵ҧͧѴਹ Сͺ¼Ǫҭçسزͺؤŷ 觡ûШӪش᷹Żª㴽˹ҧѴਹ ҨҡҢͧСäҨҧ (Ҥ) ФСäҨҧз˹ҷ繷֡мʹѺʹعŢͤԴ ҹ
  9. ¡ͧѰѵҺѹ͹ѭͧçҹҧȩѺ 87 98 ҴԷ㹡ҨҵͧлѺاçҹ ѹաѺФͧԷ㹡èҵͧ ͧçҹй¨ҧ Ѵҧͺͧçҹͧù¨ҧöٴ ֡ еͧѹ ¢ŷ öѴԹѹ˵ش¼

 


ҧԧ:

  1. ;ѹ ҹ Ҩҧçҹ㹻ѵʵ ͧ عҳԪФ ѵʵçҹ©Ѻѡա, ا෾: ԾԸѳçҹ, 1998 ˹ 61-113
  2. кɰԨҵԹ繡ͺ㹡þѲһȹѺ¹ŧûͧ 1932 ֧ 1958
  3. Է ԭ ԡĵɰԨ 2008: Ѻšз͵Ҵçҹ ͡ûСͺҵáýԡĵɰԨšҧջԷҾͧ Ҿçҹ Ѵͧçҹҧ(ILO) ا෾ 5 Ҿѹ 2009
  4. 쾧ѹ "" ˾ѹҾçҹҧ (ICFTU) ʹѺʹعèѴ (Ȩԡ¹ 2522), ˹ 83 еҧ§ҹǨɰԨѧ 2514 - 2515 ¨¢ͧдѺҡѹ 28.82 ҷ ˹ѧǡѹ ˹ 188
  5. ´ ѳԵ ɰز ѧ˹ 30 觡á˹Ҩҧ鹵Ӕ ѴŹԸ 쾧ѹ, 2002
  6. ѳԵ ɰز "͹ءѵҤҨҧ鹵ӨѧѴ : ШӹҨԧ" úѧѺ顮¤ͧçҹ, .30-43, ŹԸ 쾧ѹ. 2545
  7. Ѩغѹͧ١ҧ 13 ŧṹ§᷹͡١ҧѡ 1 Ҿ 1 § ١Ԩóз͹繵᷹ԧ Ҿ˭Ҫԡҡ 1 §Ҿ ˵˹觷ԴèѴҾ ҡհҹ§ҡ㹡ͧ͡Ҥյҧ 駤СäҨҧ
  8. ͹Ҥ 2011 ӹѡçҹѹ ʴԡФͧçҹ

 

Date post : 16/07/2554

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